Warren said it was essential for Australia to “reassess the impact of uranium exports to India.” Given Australia`s long history of “respecting and delivering on its non-proliferation commitments,” the agreement with India is a “watershed for the Australian state, and it clearly undermines non-proliferation standards – if not from a logistical point of view, it is definitely in mind,” he said. “We signed a nuclear cooperation agreement because Australia trusts India to do the right thing in this area, as it has done in other areas,” Abbott told reporters after he and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi signed a safeguard pact to sell uranium for peaceful electricity generation. During the Cold War, Australia saw little chance of strategic interest in India. Even for India, they were largely inaccessible when it came to the convergence of a strategic perspective between India and Australia. As a party to the 1986 Treaty of Rarotonga, which provided a “nuclear-weapon-free zone” in the South Pacific, Australia was required to ensure that nuclear technology and equipment were not exported to help a nation develop nuclear explosive devices. In addition, strict non-proliferation measures would apply to all exports of nuclear materials to ensure exclusively peaceful and non-explosive use. After the 1998 tests, Australia responded quickly by imposing a ban on the sale of uranium to India unless it became a signatory to the NPT. When President George W. Bush announced in 2005 his intention to conclude a nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and India, the two countries began discussions on the same subject. India`s subsequent exemption from compliance with the TSN guidelines (where a group of nuclear weapons-contributing countries wishing to contribute to nuclear non-proliferation approves the nuclear export guidelines) and the signing in 2008 of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between India and the United States effectively opened the doors to other nation states for the adoption of a nuclear cooperation agreement with India.
India`s agreement with the United States also effectively weakened Australia`s supply ban policy because it was not part of the NSG and was not a signatory to the NPT. In the face of declining bilateral trade, Modi said the two countries were required to conclude comprehensive economic cooperation quickly. “India dutifully scored the Is and surpassed the Ts in every international agreement,” Abbott said. He also announced that the ECSC would be completed by next year and said, “It is thanks to our people.” Discussions between India and the United States established a framework for renewed bilateral relations, after which Agreement 123 (also known as the United States Civil Nuclear Agreement of India) was signed in 2008. The United States also took over the case of India in the NSG to grant a waiver to New Delhi to launch the global civil nuclear trade; On 6 September 2008, the NSG granted India its own waiver.  India has become the only nuclear-weapon country not to belong to the country of nuclear non-proliferation and to be allowed to negotiate nuclear weapons with the rest of the world. The renunciation of the NSG thus paved the way for India to take its place as a valuable partner in the civilian framework of nuclear trade.